Sending Mass Email in Thunderbird Using MailTweak

September 16, 2011 Leave a comment

While Outlook has some great features for a corporate environment, Mozilla Thunderbird is probably one of my all-time favorite email clients. Its cross-platform compatible (runs on Linux, Windows, and Mac), fast, highly customizable, open source, and free to download and use (take that Microsoft!). Just like its cousin, the Mozilla Firefox browser, extra functionality and features can be added to Thunderbird by installing plugins. One of my all-time favorite plugins for Thunderbird (along with Enigmail), is MailTweak. This plugin adds a great deal of extra features and functionality to an already great program. One of these features that I find myself using fairly often, is sending personalized mass emails…


 

The rest of this story is posted on our new site: http://www.sysmincomputing.com

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Tutorial: Using WinSCP to Connect to a FTP, SFTP/SCP, or AFP File Share

January 22, 2011 8 comments

Both Mac and Linux have built-in support for connecting securely to SFTP and SCP file shares. This is because both are closely connected to the Unix platform, where the ssh protocol was originally developed. Windows, however doesn’t have any such connection to these protocols. Luckily, there is a free program that will add the necessary functionality to easily work with these file shares. Its called WinSCP (http://winscp.net).

WinSCP (Which stands for Windows Secure Copy) is a lightweight program that allows Windows computers to connect to other servers running FTP or SSH (and thus securely to SFTP/SCP file shares) on them, and I’ve even had success connecting to AFP (Apple Filing Protocol) shares (edit: since I wrote this article, I have done some additional research, and found out that the Mac servers that were using AFP also had SSH enabled for remote management, which is what WinSCP was probably connecting to — my recommendation is if you need to access files on a Mac from Windows, you probably need to also enable SSH on the server to make it work). In this tutorial, I’ll show you how to install this software and use it to connect to a server.

Installing WinSCP

First thing to do is download WinSCP from its download page (http://winscp.net/eng/download.php). You’ll note that there are two different install packages available: the standard Installation package and the Portable Executable package. Use the Portable Executable package if you don’t have administrative permissions or if you want to install the program on a portable device like a USB drive. Otherwise use the Installation package to install the software onto a specific computer. After downloading the program, go ahead and run it.

WinSCP Install: Select LanguageThe first screen you’ll see is the Select Setup Language window. For the sake of this tutorial, we’ll leave it as English, but you can choose whatever you want. Click OK to continue.

Click Next on the Welcome window, and next again to accept the install license (WinSCP is distributed under the open source GPL license). The next window is the Setup Type window where you can choose to use the Typical Install option or do a Custom Install. For the sake of this tutorial, we’ll stick with the Typical Install option. Click Next to move to the next screen, select the Do Not Install radial button on the extra software window, and click next again.

Typical vs Custom Install

TCommander vs Explorer Interfacehe next screen lets you select the type of interface you want to use. The two options are the Commander and Explorer interfaces. The commander interface has a more traditional FTP program look with one frame on the left of the window showing your local files and another frame on the right showing the files on the server. You transfer files back and forth by dragging from one frame to the other. The explorer interface looks more like a typical Windows Explorer window of just the server’s files, and you transfer files back and forth by dragging them from one window to the other. Either interface will work, and you can switch back and forth after installation, so it really doesn’t matter which you choose (I happen to prefer the Commander interface myself). After selecting which interface you want, Click Next and then Install to complete the installation.

After its complete, click finish to close the install program. If you leave the Launch WinSCP  box checked it will open the program automatically when you click finish. Otherwise you can use the desktop icon or Start Menu to run the program.Finished Installation

Setting Up a Connection in WinSCP

WhWinSCP Starting Imageen you open WinSCP, you’ll see the main program screen. On the right hand side is a series of buttons that allow you to edit, delete, and create new connections. Left of that is a list of the connections that you’ve created and saved in the past. Click on the New button to open up the Login screen.

There are several fields on the Login screen that you should be aware of:

  • Host Name: This is where you’ll put the name of the server that you want to connect to (for example: fs.finearts.utah.edu).
  • Port Number: This is the port that the server will be connecting on. Unless otherwise instructed, just leave it set to its default number (port 22).
  • Username: This is the username that you would use to log into the computer normally (for example: u0123456). If you are not sure what to use, ask the server’s administrator.
  • Password: This is the password you would use to log into the computer normally (for example: password1234). Again, ask the server’s administrator if you don’t know what to use for this field.
  • Private Key File: If your connection is set up to use Public/Private key authentication, you would tell WinSCP where your private key file is. If you don’t know what a private key is, or if you don’t have one, just leave the field blank.
  • File Protocol: This is the type of protocol you’ll be using to connect with the server. Generally, you can leave this set to SFTP with the Allow SCP Fallback box checked.

WinSCP Login Screen

Once you’ve filled in the appropriate fields, you can click the save button and choose a name for the connection (this can be whatever you want). If you want WinSCP to remember your password, go ahead and check the box that says Save Password (otherwise WinSCP will ask you for your password every time you try to connect). Finally click the OK button to save the connection to your Connections List.Walks through

Transferring Files Using WinSCP

Once you’ve created and saved a connection, you can access your file share by clicking on the entry in the list and clicking the Login button at the bottom of the window. This will open a box saying it’s attempting to connect to the server. If the information you entered is correct, it will open up a window showing the files on the server, and (if you selected the Commander Interface) the files on your local computer as well. Commander Interface for WinSCP

To enter a folder on either the server or local computer side, simply double-click on that folder. To move back out of the folder, you can double-click on the folder at the top of the list with an arrow and two dots (the two dots mean move up one directory). Finally, to copy a file from one computer to the other, simply click and drag from one side to the other. This will cause WinSCP to verify that you want to copy that file. Click Copy, and when the transfer is complete, you should see a copy of the file on both the server and local computer in the place you dragged and dropped it to. You can also copy folders and multiple files the same way (to copy multiple files or folders, simply highlight them all using the shift or ctrl key, then drag and drop). It’s important to remember that this action only makes a copy from one computer to the other. The original file will still be in the same place it was before the transfer. When you are done, you can simply close the window like you would any other, and it will close the connection for you and exit the program.

You should now be able to use WinSCP to upload and download files from other servers. There are several features available in WinSCP that we haven’t covered in this tutorial however. If you are interested in learning what these features are and how to use them, simply check out the WinSCP Documentation page at http://winscp.net/eng/docs/start. I’ve also created a video tutorial demonstrating these steps that can be seen on Vimeo, or by playing the the embedded video below:

Advantages and Security Considerations of Utilizing the IPv6 Protocol

December 14, 2010 Leave a comment

* The PDF version of this paper can be downloaded here.

Abstract

Internet Protocol version 6 has been available for nearly a decade, but many entities in the private sector have been hesitant to adopt this new technology. With the decreasing number of IPv4 addresses, however, the switch to the newer protocol will soon become a necessity. Luckily, IPv6 offers several features that not only improve performance and security, but also allow for a gradual transition from one protocol to the other. It is essential however, that Administrators and other support staff become familiar with the new protocol before adopting it within their network. Several advantages and dangers of this protocol are highlighted, in order for the reader to become more familiar with the variety of risks and advantages associated with its implementation. By providing IT staff with training, and developing a plan for the gradual migration to the new protocol, organizations can make this transition smoothly and without disruption.

Why Use IPv6?

IPv4 Available Address Space

Figure 1: ARIN, Percentage of available IPv4 addresses as of September 2010.

In response to the inevitable departure from IPv4, the latest Internet Protocol (IPv6), has been available in most major operating systems

and network devices for nearly a decade. Its design includes features that resolve many of our modern-day networking concerns without relying on stopgap technologies, such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and Private Network Addressing. The United States Federal Government has even gone so far as to issue a string of deadlines going from 200

8 to 2014 in an effort to migrate both their internal clients and external servers to the new protocol (Marsan, 2010b). Despite various technological advantages for migrating to the new protocol, a large  percentage of the private sector have displayed a reluctance to venture into the unfamiliar IPv6 waters. As time  passes, however, it will become increasingly advantageous for these companies to invest the time and training to safely and effectively implement this new technology on their networks. For these corporations and their clients, the incentives for transitioning to IPv6 include: increased address space, the ability to gradually migrate from IPv4, and the native incorporation of the IPSec Protocol Suite.

The Numbers Behind Version 6

Perhaps the most well known advantage to IPv6 is the increased number of addresses available for use. In IPv4, network addresses are 32 bits long, which results in 232 (approximately 4.3 billion) unique addresses to be used around the world. Despite the adoption of stopgap technologies like NAT routing, the increasing popularity of PCs and mobile network devices have resulted in these addresses to be depleted at an alarming rate. According to the American Registry for International Numbers (ARIN), 94.5% of all IPv4 addresses have been assigned as of September 3, 2010 (See Figure 1). Furthermore, it has been projected that the remaining 5.5% will be assigned as early as the end of this year (Marsan, 2010a). IPv6 on the other hand, uses an address of 128 bits (approximately 3.4×10^38), resulting in an address space sufficiently large to handle future networking needs for years to come.

Making the Transition Easy

Most businesses today have a significant amount of money and time invested in their IPv4 networks. Normally, it would be impossible for most to switch their entire network over to a new protocol without devoting massive amounts of resources to the project. Such a financial burden would be both detrimental to the business, and ultimately hamper the success of the new protocol in general. In order to avoid this situation, the designers of IPv6 were careful to implement several features that allow both IPv4 and IPv6 networks to interact with each other. Such changes allow organizations to gradually transition from one protocol to the other without incurring a large financial burden. This is accomplished through the use of IPv4 tunnels and running both IPv4 and IPv6 in tandem on a host.

In order to route IPv6 traffic across IPv4 networks, IPv6 utilizes what is known as an “IPv6-over-IPv4 Tunnel.” In this situation, an IPv6-enabled host will package a datagram in accordance with the specifications of the protocol and send it over the network. When the packet reaches a router connecting an IPv6 network to an IPv4 network, the entire packet is encapsulated in the data section of an IPv4 packet and forwarded along to the next stop. Finally, when another IPv6 network is reached, the IPv4 header is removed and the packet is sent to its final destination (Miller, 1998). If additional security is desired through the use of a VPN, the entire VPN package is packaged as shown in Figure 2. This ensures that at any stop of its journey, the packet will have the correct header for the network segment it is on.

IPv6-Over-IPv4 Tunneling Packet

Figure 2: Diagram of an IPv6 packet being tunneled through an IPv4 VPN.

While tunneling is used to ensure a packet can travel successfully from one part of a network to another, it is also important that all hosts are able to understand both IPv6 and IPv4 packets in order to communicate with each other. In response to this need, most modern-day operating systems configure IPv4 and IPv6 to run in “dual-stack mode” by default (Hogg, 2009). This allows for transparent communication between two hosts without user interaction, despite the IP version being used. From the view point of Network and Systems Administrators, this is a very convenient feature. Such a configuration does bring about security implications that will be discussed in the next section of this paper.

Security from the Start

One of the greatest advantages from the standpoint of security is the protection provided in IPv6 by the IPsec Protocol Suite. IPsec provides both authentication and confidentiality to IP communications through the combined use of an Authentication Header (which depends on SHA-1, MD5, or AES-XCBC hashing algorithm, combined with HMAC for added security), and an Encapsulating Security Payload (which uses AES, DES, or TrippleDES combined with CBC to encrypt the packet, see Figure 3 for more details) (Network Working Group, 2007b). Because IPsec works on the network layer, the protection it provides occurs transparently. This helps to remove some of the burden of securing IP connections from the user (Panko, 2004). While IPsec is also available for IPv4, it requires extra configuration to setup and use, whereas in IPv6 it is built directly into the protocol.

CBC Encryption

Figure 3: Wikipedia, Top: CBC encryption mode is performed by using an XOR on an IV and the planetext message. Each subsequent message is XORed with the previous encrypted packet. This not only ensures that each packet is unique and secure secure, but also that each packet depends on all subsequent packets to be able to decrypt the data. Bottom: Decryption occurs much the same way as encryption, but instead of the planetext, the cyphertext is used in the XOR to decrypt each packet.

Read more…

Fixing XP’s Registry from the Recovery Console Using System Restore Points

November 11, 2010 Leave a comment

I recently had a client’s Windows XP machine suffer a crash that corrupted its registry and prevented it from even booting into safe mode. After trying several different tricks to try to get it to boot, I came across an article at http://bit.ly/ccKMOe that really did the trick. I thought I’d summarize the steps I took to perform the fix:

  1. Boot into the Recovery Console using a Windows XP CD. If you prefer, you can use a Live CD like Knoppix or Ubuntu to access the computer’s hard drive.
  2. Backup the current SOFTWARE and SYSTEM registry hives. While this step isn’t technically required to restore the registry from an old system restore point, it is always a good idea to make a backup of system files that you are going to replace (just in case you have one of those “uh-oh” moments later and need to undo what you just did). To do this from the Recovery Console, type:
    cd \Windows\System32\Config
    ren software software.bak
    ren system system.bak
  3. Navigate to the directory where the system restore files are being kept. You can do this by typing: cd "\System Volume Information\_resto~1". The _resto~1 part of the line is a shortened name for a directory called _restore followed by a long GUID number. If this command doesn’t work, you will need to replace the _resto~1 with the full name of the directory (you can find out what the whole name is by using the dir command).
  4. In the _restore directory, there are a bunch of directories starting with RP. These are the different restore points saved on your system. Use the dir command to see the dates associated with these various restore points and cd into one with a date before the problem started occurring (ex. cd RP743).
  5. Inside the restore point directory, there is a folder titled snapshot. Type cd snapshot to change into that directory as well. In the snapshot directory, there are backup copies of the SOFTWARE and SYSTEM registry files that we need. Copy them into the Windows\System32\Config directory by typing:
    copy _REGISTRY_MACHINE_SOFTWARE \Windows\System32\Config\software
    copy _REGISTRY_MACHINE_SYSTEM \Windows\System32\Config\system
  6. Type exit to close the Recovery Console and restart your computer. If everything went right, you should be able to boot into Windows XP without any problems.

Disable the System Beep in Ubuntu Linux

November 5, 2010 Leave a comment
  • Materials Needed: A computer running Ubuntu Linux (may work with other distros)
  • Time: 5 minutes

There are three four simple ways to disable the system beep in Ubuntu. They are: Permanently for all users with a blacklisted module, Permanently for all users using inputrc, Permanently for a specific user, and Temporarily disable the beep. I will go over each of these three methods in this Wiki entry. If you are not sure which method you wish to use, I recommend permanently disabling the speaker for all users with a blacklisted module.

Permanently, for All Users (Blacklisted Module)

After initially writing this guide, I learned that Ubuntu allows you to use a text file in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory to blacklist or enable modules as needed. I found this way to be the easiest and most robust way to turn off the system beep, and will be turned off from the moment your system boots up. To create a blacklisted module, simply open up a terminal (its under accessories in Ubuntu’s Applications menu) and type:

sudo echo blacklist pcspkr > /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-pcspkr.conf

Here’s what this command does:

  • sudo: Use this command to perform a task as the Super User. This gives us permission to create a file in the modprobe.d directory. You will probably have to put in your password before it will execute the command. If you don’t have access to the sudo command, you’ll have to contact your system administrator.
  • echo: This command will print whatever follows it to the terminal screen (or as we’ll see in a moment, to a file).
  • blacklist pcspkr: This is the command that tells linux to blacklist (aka. do not load) the pcspkr module on startup. In other words, this will keep the system speaker from ever starting up, which means there is no way for Ubuntu to beep at you.
  • >: This symbol says to take the output of whatever command is on the left-hand side of it (in this case, our echo command) and write it to a file specified on the right-hand side of it (in this case /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-pcspkr.conf).
  • /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-pcspkr.conf: The file path where we will be storing our command to blacklist the pc speaker module.

With this one command, you will never have to deal with a system beep again. Some of you may be wondering if this will also turn off your speakers that you use to listen to sounds/music on your computer. The answer is no. They should continue working without any problems.

Permanently, for All Users (inputrc)

If you want to permanently disable the beep for all users on the system, you will need to edit the system’s inputrc file. To do this, open a terminal and type:

sudo nano /etc/inputrc

For those of you not familiar with bash commands, we’ll take a moment to explain what’s going on here:

  • sudo: This allows you to execute this command as a Super User. Since we are editing the system’s version of this file, we will need Super User privileges.
  • nano: This is a really simple command-line text editor. You can substitute this editor for any other text editor that you would prefer to use (I like Vim myself). If you don’t know about any other text editors, or if you have no idea what I’m talking about, you should probably stick to nano.
  • /etc/inputrc: This is the path to the file you are going to edit.

Once the editor opens your inputrc file, type the following command:

set bell-style visible

Again, we’ll go over this command:

  • set bell-style: This tells the system that we are going to change the way the system notifies us of an error. By default, it is set to beep at you.
  • visible: This tells the system what to do instead of beeping at you. Visible will cause the system to cause the window you are in to flash instead of beep. If you don’t want it to do anything, substitute the word none.

One should also note that in later versions of Ubuntu, this line of code is already in the file and is just commented out (made so it won’t run) by a # at the beginning of the line. Instead of typing the command, you can simply find the correct line and delete the # at the beginning.

Save the file (in nano, you push ctl-x, then enter y to indicate you want to save the changes) and restart your computer.

Permanently, for a Specific User

Follow the same steps for the “All Users” method as specified above, but instead of typing the command to edit the generic /etc/inputrc file as previously mentioned, edit/create the one in the user’s home directory. To do this, type:

nano ~/.inputrc

This file will override the generic file previously mentioned, but only for the user that is logged in when you edit the file, so you can have the default bell-style be set to one type, and your current user to another. Again, the rest of the steps are exactly the same as above.

Temporarily Disabled

If you only want to disable this temporarily (only when you go to the library for example), you can use this method. Open a terminal and type the following two commands:

xset b off
xset b 0 0 0

These two commands together will basically tell the system to turn off the bell, but it will be turn back on the next time you restart your computer.

Registering a Copyright in the United States

July 8, 2010 Leave a comment

When it comes to intellectual property law, there are some things that are just too complicated to do yourself (anyone who’s been involved in writing claims for a software patent or license knows what I mean). You may be surprised to hear, however, that registering a copyright is one of the few things that the average Joe (or Jill) can do without a team of lawyers to back him or her up. In this article, I will explain some of the basics of what a copyright is, why you should register one, and how easy it is to do it.

What is a copyright and how do I get one?

Chances are, if you can write, type, paint, sketch, take pictures with a camera, or operate a video/audio recorder, you probably own a copyright. In fact, there are only two major requirements to owning a copyright on a specific work*:

  1. It must be an original work (i.e. you didn’t copy someone else).
  2. The work must be “fixed in a tangible medium.” Basically, the moment you write the work down on paper, save it in a computer, paint it on a canvas, take a picture, post it online, etc., you’ve met this requirement.

If you’ve met these two requirements, then you automatically receive a copyright for that work. No boxtops need to be mailed in. No proof of purchase needed. Congrats, you are a copyright owner!

So if I already have a copyright, why should I register one?

At this point, you’ve probably realized that you own more copyrights than you ever imagined and are wondering what they’re good for. Basically a copyright gives you, the original creator of a work, the legal right to copy, distribute, and adapt that work. If someone tries to infringe upon your copyright, you also have the legal right to seek compensation for any damages incurred. You receive these rights automatically, and they are considered legal and binding whether or not you choose to register your copyright.
So if you receive these rights automatically upon qualifying for a copyright, why should you bother registering it? Well, in addition to these basic rights granted to copyright owners, registering comes with a few added benefits:

  1. Registering establishes a definitive date that can be used to prove a material as originally being yours.
  2. If a copyright is registered BEFORE an infringement, it entitles you to statutory damages and attorney’s fees if you win in court (without a prior registration, you are due only actual damages incurred). Also, you cannot file an infringement suit until you register your copyright.
  3. A copy of your work is stored in the Library of Congress. This means that even if your original work was somehow destroyed or lost, you can be sure that it isn’t lost from the world.

It is important to also note, that registering a copyright is a fairly easy and inexpensive process. Currently, it costs $35 to register your copyright electronically, $50 if you choose to register using the Fill-In Form CO, and $65 if you decide to use the old-fashioned paper forms. This means that the average person can receive a great deal of added protection for a very reasonable amount of money.

OK, you’ve convinced me, but how do I register my copyright?

There are three basic steps to registering a copyright:

  1. Complete the application
  2. Pay the filing fee**
  3. Submit a copy of your work

Unless you are terrified of technology (and I highly doubt you would be reading this blog post if you were) I highly recommend registering your copyright online through the U.S. Copyright Office’s website (http://www.copyright.gov).*** There are several advantages to filing electronically:

  • Filing online is cheaper.
  • Your application is processed faster than if you file using paper forms.
  • In many cases, you can submit a digital copy of your work to the Library of Congress instead of mailing a physical copy.**** This will save you time, postage, and the cost of printing an extra copy of your work.
  • After submitting your claim, you can check on its status by loging into eCo and clicking on the blue case number associated with your claim in the “Open Cases” table.

In order to file electronically, you will need an email address. Your email will not be made available to the public record. If you don’t have an email address, you can get one from one of several online email services for free:

Once you have an email address, simply go to http://www.copyright.gov/eco/ and click on “Electronic Copyright Office” next to “Login to eCO.” Then just fill in the information requested. Upon filling out the form, you will then be asked to pay the $35 registration fee and submit a copy of your work (you will be given the option of either printing out an address label for mailing in your work, or to submit a copy of your work electronically). Once those three steps are complete, the U.S. Copyright Office will process your application, and upon determining that you’ve met the aforementioned requirements for owning a copyright, will approve your registration.

Notes:

* It is important to note that the word “work” is used here, because things like processes and methodologies cannot be copyrighted (stuff like that is covered under different types of Intellectual Property Law.
** Filing fees are paid online through a government website called Pay.gov (http://www.pay.gov).
*** While most modern web browsers can be used to file electronically, currently Safari and Chrome are not certified as being compatible with the online registration application. Sorry Mac users, but let’s face it, you should be using a better web browser than Safari anyway.
****A list of supported file types for uploading your work can be found at http://www.copyright.gov/eco/help-file-types.html.

Additional Information:

Beginner's Guide to Removing Viruses

December 29, 2009 2 comments

We’ve all been there. Surfing online, minding our own business (or maybe not…), when you realize all too late that you clicked on the wrong link or popup. Bam! You’ve got a virus.*
If you’re lucky, your antivirus software (you are running up-to-date antivirus software on your computer, right?) will catch the mistake and eliminate the infection before it manages to take root on your system. All to often, however, the virus will manage to get in under the radar and wreak havoc before you’ve even realized its there. At this point, a simple scan of your antivirus software is often not enough to completely remove the infection. In this article, I’ve outlined several basic steps that can be taken to remove an infection.**

1. Prepare the Infected System

Before trying to remove a virus from your system, there are a few important things to do. First, avoid using your computer for any task where sensitive or private information will be used. It is not uncommon for some infections to steal passwords, financial information, or anything typed on your keyboard. If possible, you should disconnect your system from the Internet and not use it until you are certain that the infection is removed.
Second, it is important to know that the process of removing viruses from your system can be a very involved and time-consuming task, ranging from hours to a couple of days depending on how bad the infection is. Once you start the process of removing a virus, you should see it through to the end. Otherwise you run the risk of having the virus come back again.
Third, turn off System Restore (some viruses will use System Restore as a way to reinstall themselves after being removed) and clean out all temporary files (I recommend using CCleaner to do this, although Windows Cleanup can be used instead). In addition to helping with the removal of the virus infection, this will help speed up your virus scans.
Fourth, it is always a good idea to back up any important data before attempting to remove a virus. While these steps are fairly straight forward and shouldn’t result in any data loss or harm to your system, the only way to ensure your data is protected is by backing it up! Its tedious, I know, you should still do it. Also, don’t copy, run, or open any files from your backup without first scanning it with a working and up-to-date virus/adware/spyware scanner. After all, you don’t want to reinfect yourself or another clean system with the same virus.

2. Download Virus Removal Tools

The first rule of dealing with an infected system is to not trust any of the programs that are on that system. Therefore, you are going to need to download a few standard tools in order to deal with your virus problem. The first tool I would recommend is a good antivirus rescue live CD.*** The benefit of using a live CD is you can guarantee that your tools will be completely unaffected by the virus infection. There are several free live CD’s available for this purpose (a list with reviews can be found here). I would recommend using one or more of the following: Avira AntiVir Rescue System, BitDefender Rescue CD, and/or Dr. Web Live CD (it doesn’t hurt to use several different live CDs in succession to be thorough since different antivirus tools will sometimes detect and remove different viruses more efficiently). You will also want some other tools that are specifically designed for removing adware/spyware. I recommend using Malwarebytes, Spybot, and/or Ad-Aware (each has a free version available for home use). Be sure to run the update tool on each of the programs you’ve installed before using them.

3. Run the Live CD(s)

This seems fairly obvious, but at this point, go ahead and boot into a live CD and run the antivirus tools. Some live CDs allow you to update the virus definitions before running them (you will likely need a network connection via an Ethernet cable to perform the updates). Other live CDs will automatically have a set of fairly recent virus definitions already built in. After you’ve updated the virus definitions (if the option is available), start the virus scan and then go watch TV or read a book for a while because it will take some time (I’ve found that most virus scans take between 1 to 3 hours to run depending on the number of files on your system). Once its done, make sure to tell the CD to remove any infections it found and restart the computer with a different live CD if you are planning on running multiple scans. Rinse, lather, repeat! If there are any viruses found that the live CD is unable to remove, write down its name and do some research online (from another computer if possible). Sometimes antivirus companies, such as McAfee or Symantec, often have special tools and detailed instructions on removing some of the more difficult infections.

4. Start Windows in Safe Mode

Once you’ve finished running the live CDs that you’ve chosen to run, you’ll want to boot into Safe Mode in Windows to finish cleaning up the system. To do this, press the F8 key repeatedly while the computer is starting up. For detailed instructions on how to do this, click here. Once you’ve booted into Safe Mode log into an account (make sure the account has administrative privileges) and run a scan with each of your antivirus/antispyware programs (ie. Malwarebytes, Spybot, Ad-Aware, etc.) in turn. Again, these scans will take some time, but its the only way to make sure that your system is free of viruses. Have these tools clean/repair or quarantine any infections they find, and be sure to write down any infections that cannot be treated so you can do some specific research on how to remove those particularly stubborn infections. It also doesn’t hurt to run each scan again after you’ve cleaned off all the infections, just to ensure that none of them have re-spawned themselves after removing them.

5. Final Cleanup

After you’ve finished running your various scans and have achieved a clean bill of health, restart your computer and let it start up normally. Hopefully, your system should now be free of infections and as good as new. If everything seems fine and you don’t see any signs of the previous infection, go ahead and turn System Restore back on and (if you suspect that your current antivirus was compromised by the virus and no longer working properly), uninstall and then reinstall your antivirus software. Be sure that you update the antivirus and make sure that its working correctly. Finally, you can verify that all is well by running a free online scan of your computer from Panda or BitDefender.**** If everything checks out, your system is clean as a whistle and ready to go. If not, then you likely have a virus that will require some additional (and more invasive) steps to get it off of your system. If this is the case, you’ll probably need to seek additional help from someone with experience dealing with these kinds of infections.


* Since this article is meant to be a beginner’s guide, I will be using the term “virus” interchangeably with the term “malware.” While such a generalization is not technically accurate, I have done so in order to avoid confusing some of our less technical readers. Technically, a virus is defined as a malicious program capable of self replication (often without the permission of the user), while malware (which is short for “malicious software”) is a general term that includes a wide variety of infections (viruses, worms, trojans, rootkits, adware/spyware, etc.).

** While following these steps should not cause you to loose any of your data or cause problems with your system, you should know that attempting a virus removal is not completely without risk. You should always take precautions to back up your data in order to ensure that it isn’t lost. I am not responsible to any harm caused to your system or data by using this information. This article is for instructional purposes only and is not to be seen as a definitive guide to malware removal.

*** A live CD is a CD that you can boot into instead of your usual operating system (such as Windows). You can usually download an ISO file and burn it to a physical CD (the Avira CD actually has a program that you download and run to burn the CD for you). I would recommend downloading the file and burning the disk as close to when you plan on doing the virus removal so that it is the most recent version. Also, you may have to change your BIOS settings to allow you to boot into a live CD. If you don’t know how to do this, you can get more information here.

**** There are a lot of websites out there that claim to offer free malware removal tools but will actually further infect your system with viruses. Only trust tools from reputable sources, such as well-known antivirus companies (Norton, McAfee, Panda, BitDefender, etc.). If you don’t know whether a tool is legitimate or not, do some research before you act. Remember, the first rule of online security is to never trust anyone.